Sunday, March 15, 2020
Au Cas OÃ ¹ - French Expression Explained The French expression Au cas oÃ ¹ (pronounced [o ka oo], note that there is no liaison between cas and oÃ ¹) literally translatesÃ to in the case where Explanation and Examples The French expression au cas oÃ ¹ is exactly equivalent to (just) in case in English. You can use it in front of a subject plus verb in the conditional, in which case its register is normal to formal. The more interesting - and informal - usage is when its tacked on to the end of a sentence. If you dont already use au cas oÃ ¹ regularly, you soon will. Ã Ã Ã Au cas oÃ ¹ il rentrerait avant nous, je vais lui laisser un mot.Ã Ã Ã (Just) in case he gets home before us, Im going to leave him a note.Ã Ã Ã Apporte un parapluie, au cas oÃ ¹ il pleuvrait.Ã Ã Ã Bring an umbrella, (just) in case it rains.Ã Ã Ã Apporte un blouson, au cas oÃ ¹.Ã Ã Ã Bring a jacket, just in case. Synonymous Expressions For au cas oÃ ¹ conditional: dans le cas oÃ ¹des fois quepour le cas oÃ ¹ For the informal au cas oÃ ¹ at the end of a sentence: tout hasardpour le cas oÃ ¹
Friday, February 28, 2020
Theodicy and the Free Will Defense - Essay Example This paper deems to tackle the concepts revolving around theodicy and free will; this also aims to know whether the free will defense meet all the three criteria for an effective theodicy. Free Will Human free will and freely chosen good actions are of high value, even though free will opens up the possibility of evil (Pinnock 5). Furthermore, as guided by the definition of freedom, free will or free act is an act that is not determined casually in any way by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic makeup, by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s environment or even by God (Pinnock 5). Likewise, every free person is possibly sinful and free to choose evil; thus, given the independence of human freedom from divine control, it is obviously impossible for God to guarantee that individuals will always freely choose to do what is morally noble (Pinnock 5). In simple terms, Pinnock implied that free will is considered as a key justification to evil (4). Individuals deem that they have free will if they view themselves as agents capa ble of influencing the world in a variety of ways (Kane 5). Moreover, persons feel that it is up to them what they will choose and how they will act and this means they could have chosen and acted otherwise (Kane 5). Furthermore, Kane suggests that the basis of the actions of individuals exercising free will lie in themselves and not outside them which is something that could be beyond their control (5). The Biopic Teleological Argument Edwards inquired about how a powerful transcendent Creator can be a Benevolent Super-intellect when evil is evident in the world (299). Edwards then emphasized that no single, magic bullet neatly solves the problem of theodicy for if there is an available solution, it usually results from cumulative weight of many considerations; hence, the success or failure of theodicy is a matter of fallible and variable judgment (299). Massive evil in the world is indeed the greatest obstacle of all to have faith and believe that a good God created the universe f or benevolent purposes (Edwards 299). Without theodicy, individuals would deprive God of devotion instead contempt might linger in their mind and hearts (Edwards 299). The Free Will Defense amidst the Criteria of Theodicy The Free Will Defense by Alvin Plantinga denotes that much of the evil most notably the moral evil that exist in the world is a consequence of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s endowing humans with significant moral freedom (Nash 199). In lieu of the first criteria of effective theodicy, the premise handled only human-caused suffering satisfactorily in the sense that it rationalizes why one experiences such. Such outcome is based on the fact that a free and responsible choice originates with the intelligent moral agent who makes it (Edwards 299). Thus, being responsible for a choice and its consequences such as suffering means picking that option or choice knowingly (Edwards 299). As what Edwards (299) highlighted that moral agents are responsible only for the decisions they made that originated from them, other than that, they may not be held accountable (Edwards 299). The second criteria of an effective theodicy was tackled by the Free Will Defense, in such a way that this approach stressed that God allows moral evil in order to bring about the greater good of allowing his creation to encompass significantly free moral agents, without whom there could be no moral good (Nash 199). Though pain and suffering may be experience due to the
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Monitoring U.S. citizens' phone conversations to detect potential terriorist threats - Essay Example Such provisions threaten the quintessential American way of life. Liberty and freedom have always been a fundamental part of the American ethos and values. The very spirit of American political life and popular expectations simply do not allow the state to extend its sway beyond a point where it not only interferes with the personal and professional lives of people and individuals, but rather tempers with the privacy of their private and professional phone conversations. National security is really very important. However, the concerns for national security cannot be allowed to irrationality expand to a level where they start hampering the normal activities of the citizens. The act of monitoring the phone conversations of citizens is also unconstitutional and violates the Fourth Amendment rights of the citizens, which constitute a part of the Bill of Rights (Dripps, 2007). Superficially speaking, the Fourth Amendment to the constitution of the United States of America intends to prot ect the citizens from illegal search and seizures. Surprisingly, the very purpose of this Amendment was to check the abuse of general search warrants in the American Revolution (Dripps, 2007). In the historical Katz v.
Friday, January 31, 2020
The study of physics has had Essay Introduction The study of physics has had a large impact on the development of road safety. The study of Newtons Laws, impulse and momentum help to reduce initial momentum or decrease impulse (rate of change of momentum) to protect passengers. Technological advances and studies of vehicle crashes increase the automobile industrys understanding of the forces involved and ways of reducing effects of collisions. Within vehicles, many car safety devices are installed, such as seat belts, air bags, crumple zones and head rests. Modern road design reduces the initial or rate of change of momentum and consequently the impact of collision through crash barriers, speed zones and speed humps. Car safety devices Seatbelts Seatbelts are designed so that passengers are restrained instead of continuing to move forward at the cars speed when the brakes of a moving vehicle are applied. In this situation, there is a tendency for a body to resist changes to its motion, called inertia. (Newtons first law) The stopping force is applied to the more durable parts of the body such as hips, chest and shoulder. This is instead of the human head crashing into windshield if no seat belt is worn. Inertia reel seatbelts Inertia reel seatbelts have a cylinder that stores extra belt material on a spool. The spool turns freely normally for movement. In the event of a sudden change in velocity, a pendulum in the reel plunges forward to lock and restrain the occupant. It is named inertia reel due to the inertia of the pendulum to cause belt locking. Different types of seatbelt The lap seatbelt is tightened over the pelvis and absorbs force over a sizeable area. However they do not prevent the head and upper body from lurching forward in response to deceleration and are inadequate especially for front passengers, who risk hitting the windscreen. The lap sash seatbelt combines a lap seatbelt over the pelvis as well as over one shoulder across the chest. This greatly limits movement of the upper body and head as well as spreading the stopping force over a larger area. Shoulder harnesses restrain upper torso movement even further. Two are belts fall over the shoulders and an optional strap lies over the sternum. It is effective in the way force is spread over both shoulders compared to one shoulder in lap sash. Shoulder harnesses are usually used in child restraint systems and racing cars. The nylon webbing material in seatbelts is slightly flexible so that the stop is not as abrupt. Airbags Airbags provide an extra degree of protection in a collision by cushioning passengers in a collision, greatly limiting fatalities and serious injury. They are designed to increase the time interval during which the drivers momentum decreases in a collision to decrease the net force of the driver. They inflate when crash sensors detect large deceleration. Sensors then ignite the sodium azide, producing sodium compounds and nitrogen gas for a reactive explosion. The airbags inflate rapidly to cushion the impact of the passenger against the steering wheel, dashboard or windshield. Airbags are to be used with seatbelts, not as a replacement. A disadvantage of airbags is they provide no protection against side-on hits, only frontal collisions. More expensive cars are developing side airbags to combat this. Head rests Padded headrests provide protection in rear end collisions. When a car is rear-ended, a large net force pushes the car and it accelerates forward. The inertia, based on Newtons first law, pushes the passenger into the seat. Without a head rest for support, the head remains at rest until the spine pulls it forward. This sudden, sharp acceleration for the head causes it to fling back and results in hyperextension and whiplash injuries. Crumple Zones Many cars are designed to crumple at the front and rear. Crumple zones increase the time interval during which the momentum of the car changes during a collision, thus lessening the forces. Newtons second law (f=ma) can be applied, as increased ? time will result in a decreasing rate of deceleration a and consequently reduce force. Crumple zones are built using the integration of steel and fiberglass in the front and rear end assemblies of the automobile. Rigid structures between crumple zones protect the passenger compartment. In a collision, the crumple zones deform to slow the actual impact. The car doesnt regain all its original kinetic energy, as some of this is converted to heat and sound energy to reduce damage to passenger area through smaller forces. As crumple zones are placed in strategic locations, the collapse is controlled and energy from impact is directed away from passenger area. Road design Speed humps and low speed zones. Local councils introduced Speed Humps to reduce the overall speed of cars. Evidence shows that slower moving cars cause less damage to occupants if a crash results. It has been estimated that risk of death or serious brain damage doubles with every 16km/h over 80km/h. Speed humps restrict drivers from speeding as hitting the hump too fast can cause car damage. Low speed zones also reduce the speed of cars. A reduction of speed will reduce the chance of an accident as drivers have more time to react as well as decreasing the change in momentum and associated inertial forces in collisions. The police enforces speed signs and limit zones and speeding is monitored by speed cameras. In NSW, the general urban limit is 60 km/h for roads in built up areas where there are pedestrians. Crash Barriers Crash barriers are road design features that absorb the impact of collisions. They are constructed out of steel, concrete or wire. Some types of rigid crash barriers cannot absorb much of the kinetic energy of the vehicle, but keep the vehicle on the road and prevent crashing into more dangerous roadside hazards or cars from opposite direction. Crash barriers should be relatively weak with energy absorbing structures so that they can deform easily and transfer large amounts of kinetic energy to them in collisions. For barriers shielding against hazards such as trees, they need to be a fair distance away, as space is needed for it to deform. When a vehicle collides, the barriers deform and stop the vehicle through a plowing action, keeping the reaction forces relatively low. The impulse (change in momentum) is reduced, as the vehicle takes longer to slow down. The disadvantage of crash barriers is they may cause vehicle damage (crumpling) and rigid ones may deflect a car into the opposite lane. The advance of road safety The development of vehicles with greater size, power and momentum has resulted in the need for improvements in car safety devices and modern road design. The study of physics has allowed safety features in both the interior and exterior of cars to prevent large forces acting on passengers in collisions. This is why researchers and engineers are continually turning to laws of physics for advice. Road design features reduce initial velocity to reduce the risk of accidents as well as its impact on the passenger. Automotive safety companies are continuing to develop devices to improve vehicle safety, including inflatable seatbelts, 4-point seatbelts and knee airbags to name a few. With the large percentage of the population driving forces, momentum, impulse and energy are all factors that must be controlled as our lives depend on it.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
I Know I Am But What Are You? Cultural Differences in The Tempest, MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s Essays, and In Defense of the Indians Paper #2 The Tempest, In Defense of the Indians, and MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s essays each illustrate what happens when two very different worlds collide. As Europe begins to saturate New World soil, the three authors offer their accounts of the dynamic between the European invader and native other. Though each work is unique in its details, they all share a common bond: Shakespeare, de Las Casas, and Montaigne show the reader how European colonialists use differences in appearance and language to justify theft and slavery. The TempestÃ¢â¬â¢s Caliban serves as an instrument to highlight the colonialist notion of the other. Caliban is the original inhabitant of the island; it is his native land. But Caliban is ugly. Prospero claims that he is "not honored with human shape" (p. 17), and so the new European inhabitants never think of him as a potential equal- they see him as their inferior. This initial incongruity between characters supports further dehumanization of the native for the remainder of the play. CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance does not only contribute to the EuropeansÃ¢â¬â¢ poor estimation of him, but it also serves as the justification of his slavery. When Trinculo says, "Wilt thou tell a monstrous lie, being but half a fish and half a monster" (p. 55), he communicates two important concepts. First, Trinculo reinforces the idea that Caliban is more animal than man. Next, he assumes that CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s exterior mirrors CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s interior. CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s physical deformities, according to Trinculo, also indicate deformity of character. Together, these faults aid ProsperoÃ¢â¬â¢s justification of forcing Caliban to "serve in offices that profit us" (p. 18). A second factor of CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s oppression is language. The ability to communicate that ends manÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation from others and leads to civilization. When Prospero discovers Caliban, the native has no knowledge of Europe, much less its tongue. Miranda and Prospero take it upon themselves to educate Caliban in "civilized" language. Miranda says: "I pitied thee, took pains to make thee speak, taught thee each hour one thing or other, When thou didst not, savage, know thine own meaning, but wouldst gabble, like a thing most brutish, I endowed thy purposes with words that made them known." (p. 20) Miranda believes that communication indicates that one is civilized. She does not for a moment consider that CalibanÃ¢â¬â¢s "gabble" was most likely his own language, the language he used to with Sycorax.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Ã¢â" North was opposed to slavery while the South was pro slavery Ã¢â" The primary conflict of the civil war was whether the states had the right to decide what they wanted to do with slavery. (radical abolition vs pro slavery) Ã¢â" One of the arising conflicts that led to the American Civil war was the growing abolition movement in the North Ã¢â" which was an effort to end slavery in a nation that valued personal freedom and believed Ã¢â¬Å"all men are created equal.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â" Abolitionists: William Lloyd Garrison: The voice of Abolitionism. Originally a supporter of colonization, Garrison changed his position and became the leader of the emerging anti-slavery movement. His publication, THE LIBERATOR, reached thousands of individuals worldwide. His ceaseless, uncompromising position on the moral outrage that was slavery made him loved and hated by many Americans. Although The Liberator was GarrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent abolitionist activity, he had been involved in the fight to end slavery for years prior to its publication. In 1831, Garrison published the first edition of The Liberator. His words, Ã¢â¬Å"I am in earnest Ã¢â¬â I will not equivocate I will not excuse. I will not retreat a single inch Ã¢â¬â AND I WILL BE HEARD,Ã¢â¬ clarified the position of the NEW ABOLITIONISTS. Garrison was not interested in compromise. He founded the NEW ENGLAND ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY the following year. Ã¢â" Frederick Douglass: Born a slave in Maryland escaped to MA in 1838, became an outspoken leader of antislavery sentiment. Douglass served as an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights and other civil liberties for blacks. He provided a powerful voice then that was championing human rights. He is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice.He also helped people escape to the North from the underground Railroad. Ã¢â" Pro Slavery: John C. Calhoun: He believed that slavery was a Ã¢â¬Å"good positive good.Ã¢â¬ Calhoun endorsed slavery as Ã¢â¬Ëa good Ã¢â¬â a great good,Ã¢â¬â¢ based on his belief in the inequality inherent in the human race. Calhoun believed that people were motivated primarily by self-interest and that competition among them was a positive expression of human nature. The results of this competition were displayed for all to see in the social order: those with the greatest talent and ability rose to the top, and the rest fell into place beneath them.The concepts of liberty and equality, idealized during the Revolutionary period, were potentially destructive to this social order, Calhoun believed. With the stratification of society, those at the top were recognized as authority figures and respected for their proven wisdom and ability. If the revolutionary ideal of equality were taken too far, the authority of the elite would not be accepted. Without this authority, Calhoun argued, society would break down and the liberty of all men would be threatened. Political short terms : Ã¢â" Dred Scott (1795-1858) was a slave who, in the 1840s, chose to sue his masterÃ¢â¬â¢s widow for his freedom. He argued that his master, John Emerson, escorted him onto free soil in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory, and thus had legallyÃ¢â¬âeven if inadvertentlyÃ¢â¬â granted him freedom. In 1857, the case reached the United States Supreme Court. The Justices ruled against Scott. John EmersonÃ¢â¬â¢s widow had since remarried, and she returned Scott, his wife, and his daughters to their owners, the Blow family, in May 1857, just months after the ruling. Both Dred and Harriet Scott died shortly thereafter, never to witness the legacy of their fight.The Dred Scott case was a major event on the road to the Civil War. The Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s provocative opinionÃ¢â¬âwhich stated flatly that blacks had Ã¢â¬Å"no rights which the white man was bound to respectÃ¢â¬ and rejected the right of any territory to ban slavery within its own border sÃ¢â¬âinflamed public opinion in the North, leading to a hardening of anti slavery attitudes and a surge in popularity for the new antislavery Republican Party. Ã¢â" The south wanted less government control, and more state freedom, while the North welcomed the central power of a government. Ã¢â" Because of the strong animosity toward abolitionists in the South and the thought that Abraham Lincoln embodied these abolitionist ideals, he was left off of the ballot in many Southern states, and the more radical of the states, including South Carolina, threatened to secede from the Union if Lincoln was elected president. Despite believing that the Republican PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s platforms were too moderate, abolitionist, for the large part, supported Lincoln. Lincoln lost the popular vote by nearly two million votes yet won the Electoral College by nearly sixty votes. Despite the fractured Democratic party, had they nominated only one president and still maintained all the votes the received between three candidates, they still would have lost the election regardless of also having more popular votes than Lincoln. The election itself is possibly the most significant election in American history due to the monumental issue of slavery and how divided the country was, so divided that when Lincoln was elected (it was only the second national presidential campaign ever run by the newly formed Republican Party), radically proslavery states of the South kept true to their threat and seceded from the United States. (he was a free soiler, he was willing to let slavery stay in the south as long as it did not spread.) Ã¢â" The South viewed the election of Abraham Lincoln, as president, as a threat to slavery. After Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, the South threatened to secede from the United States that questioned Ã¢â¬Å"State Rights.Ã¢â ¬ Economic short and long term causes: Ã¢â" the vast majority of industrial manufacturing was taking place in the North. The South had almost 25% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s free population, but only 10% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s capital in 1860. The North had five times the number of factories as the South, and over ten times the number of factory workers. In addition, 90% of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s skilled workers were in the North. Ã¢â" The labor forces in the South and North were fundamentally different, as well. In the North, labor was expensive, and workers were mobile and active. The influx of immigrants from Europe and Asia provided competition in the labor market, however, keeping wages from growing very quickly. Ã¢â" The Southern economy, however, was built on the labor of African American slaves, who were oppressed into providing cheap labor. Most Southern white families did not own slaves: only about 384,000 out of 1.6 million did. Of those who did own slaves, most (88%) owned fewer than 20 slaves, and were considered farmers rather than planters. Slaves were concentrated on the large plantations of about 10,000 big planters, on which 50-100 or more slaves worked. Ã¢â" Since Eli WhitneyÃ¢â¬â¢s 1793 invention of the cotton Ã¢â¬Ëgin, the cotton industry became a lucrative field for Southern planters and farmers. Utilizing slave labor, cotton planters and farmers could cut costs as they produced cotton for sale to other regions and for export to England. In exchange, Southern farmers and planters purchased manufactured goods from the North, food items from the West and imported luxuries like European designer clothes and furniture from England. The growth of the Southern cotton indu stry served as an engine of growth for the entire nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy in the antebellum (pre-war) years. Ã¢â" The other critical economic issue that divided the North from the South was that of tariffs. Tariffs were taxes placed on imported goods, the money from which would go to the government Ã¢â" Southern Congressmen generally opposed it and Northern Congressmen generally supported it. Southerners generally favored low tariffs because this kept the cost of imported goods low, which was important in the SouthÃ¢â¬â¢s import-oriented economy. Southern planters and farmers were concerned that high tariffs might make their European trading partners, primarily the British, raise prices on manufactured goods imported by the South in order to maintain a profit on trade. Ã¢â" North, however, high tariffs were viewed favorably because such tariffs would make imported goods more expensive. That way, goods produced in the North would seem relatively cheap, and Americans would want to buy American goods instead of European items. Since tariffs would protect domestic industry from foreign competition, business interests and others influenced politicians to support high tariffs.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
The previous discussions focused on the leadership styles utilized by Sogeti with the Team Park implementation. The purpose of the platform was to foster collaboration and sharing of ideas across a global network. The program was intentionally designed to be fluid without a formal internal leadership structure other than having community owners to assure proper manners and maintain order within the community. However, there are two very important leadership concepts to be considered under this new paradigm. They are team leadership and culture. These concepts may have been realized by the Sogeti leaders; however, they were not specifically addressed in the article. First, despite the absence of a formal leadership structure within TeamPark, organized teams are destined to evolve de novo without external directive. Prior to the new platform, Sogeti had a project based model where groups functioned freely and independently. However, despite a global presence, the project groups were silos bound by an inability to share ideas, knowledge, and experiences across the global organization. With the new platform, the more vertical oriented management and leadership model becomes horizontal through interactions occurring across silos. (Desiser, 2013) Much of the social interaction may be between individuals seeking information and exchanging ideas; however, it is certain that organized virtual teams will arise around common objectives. For example, there could be one group withinShow MoreRelatedTop 1 Cause for Project Failure65023 Words Ã |Ã 261 PagesInvolvement was varied from truculant to compliant. Then there was the Vendor Issue! Two high profile companies were involved in the database platform and desktop/back room hardware. There were twelve functional workstream leads in the Programme team. There was a Programme PMO. One vendor had its own PMO, the shared service company had a PMO.There were two lots of consultant firms embedded in the PMO and Programme workstreams. There was a layer of executive Programme Managers. The programme